Barley or Wheat
Majority of pigeon fanciers believe that a pigeon should be in a lean condition similar to an athlete.
The quantity to feed is determined by the type of grains and by the quantity of the excercise the bird makes.
When the pigeons are often flying and roaming, they need more food for the energy they need.
The most popular type of grains to give is either barley or wheat because it's hard to get fats with these grains.
Overweight and Overfed
Most beginner pigeon racers are overfeeding their birds which makes them unsuccessfull.
Overfeeding will make the birds fat and overweight. They will become lazy, and don't want to fly. They will just sit on the roof of the house, tree branches, electric posts, etc.
If they are not hungry, they will not respond to your call. They will not be able to learn to trap fast which is essential for racing.
Feeding the right amount will make the birds fit, alert and responsive. They will show signs of urge to fly by taking off instantly when you open your loft. They will be doing loft flying for long hours.They will trap fast when you call them.
Amount to Feed
The usual amount to feed for racing pigeons is about 1 ounce (1 oz) of feed per bird per day.
This is about 2 tablespoons (2 tbsp) per bird per day or about 28 grams.
You can feed once or twice a day. For example, 1 tbsp in the morning and 1 tbsp in the late afternoon after their flying excercise.
NOTE: This is applicable only for training pigeons. Breeding pigeon should be fed as much as they want specially when they are feeding babies.